PSR-4 namespaces and autoloading in Drupal 8

Last updated on
3 April 2017


Drupal 8 implements the PSR-4 standard for package-based PHP namespace autoloading by the PHP Framework Interoperability Group. Upgrading Drupal 7 modules to Drupal 8 will require using PSR-4 standards. See more background info on Drupal 8 development here, for PSR-4 in context.

Example vegetable.module directory structure:

  • modules/vegetable/
    • css/
    • js/
    • src/
      • Controller/
        • VegetableController.php → class Drupal\vegetable\Controller\VegetableController
      • Form/
        • VegetableForm.php → class Drupal\vegetable\Form\VegetableForm
      • Plugin/
        • Block/
          • VegetableBlock.php → class Drupal\vegetable\Plugin\Block\VegetableBlock
      • Entity/
        • Tomato.php → class Drupal\vegetable\Entity\Tomato
        • Cucumber.php → class Drupal\vegetable\Entity\Cucumber
      • tests/
        • TomatoTest.php → class Drupal\vegetable\Tests\Entity\TomatoTest
        • CucumberTest.php → class Drupal\vegetable\Tests\Entity\CucumberTest
        • VegetableManagerTest.php → class Drupal\vegetable\Tests\VegetableManagerTest
      • templates/
      • fixtures/
        • weather-data.json
    • tests/
      • src/
        • Functional/
        • Kernel/
        • Unit/
          • TomatoTest.php → class Drupal\Tests\vegetable\Unit\TomatoTest
        • Traits/
          • VegetableTestTrait.php → trait Drupal\Tests\vegetable\Traits\VetegableTestTrait
    • vegetable.routing.yml
    • vegetable.module


  1. Each module has a namespace that corresponds to its module name.

    Here: Drupal\vegetable\

  2. The module's namespace is mapped to the ./src/ folder in the module directory.

    Here: Drupal\vegetable\modules/vegetable/src/

  3. Anything after the module namespace directly maps to the directory and file structure in the ./src/ folder.

    Here: Drupal\vegetable\Entity\Tomatomodules/vegetable/src/Entity/Tomato.php

The identical logic applies to PHPUnit tests contained in ./tests/src/.

Namespace resolution

The namespace of all Drupal core components, as well as contributed modules, begins with Drupal\

The first parts of a namespaced class name indicate the base namespace that maps to a registered base directory, in which PHP files will be looked up:

Base namespace Base directory Contains
Drupal core Drupal\Component\ core/lib/Drupal/Component/ Components that are reusable outside of Drupal.
Drupal\Core\ core/lib/Drupal/Core/ Components that are specific to Drupal.
Drupal\Tests\ core/tests/Drupal/Tests/ PHPUnit tests of core components.
Modules Drupal\$modulename\ modules/$modulename/src/ Main integration files.
Drupal\$modulename\Tests\ modules/$modulename/src/Tests/ Simpletest tests of the module.
Drupal\Tests\$modulename\ modules/$modulename/tests/src/ PHPUnit tests of the module.

For modules, $modulename is the unique machine name of the module, which consists of lowercase characters and underscores.

The remaining part of a namespaced class name indicates the relative path within the base directory: each PHP namespace separator (\) is replaced with a directory separator (/) and the .php extension is appended:

Base namespace Relative class name Base directory Relative file path
Drupal\Component\ Diff\DiffEngine core/lib/Drupal/Component/ Diff/DiffEngine.php
Drupal\node\ Entity\Node core/modules/node/src/ Entity/Node.php
Drupal\Tests\views_ui\ Form\Ajax\RearrangeFilterTest core/modules/views_ui/tests/src/ Form/Ajax/RearrangeFilterTest.php
Drupal\devel\ Plugin\Block\DevelSwitchUser modules/contrib/devel/src/ Plugin/Block/DevelSwitchUser.php

Each PHP class, interface, or trait lives in a separate PHP file.

For example, the class Drupal\Component\Diff\DiffEngine is defined in core/lib/Drupal/Component/Diff/Engine/DiffEngine.php.