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In Drupal 7,
#type 'markup' was a distinction without a difference and caused confusion because including
'#type' => 'markup' in a render array was always optional and did not affect the rendering of markup added using the
#markup render array key in any way.
In Drupal 8, you can still add arbitrary markup to render arrays using the
#markup render array key, but
'#type' => 'markup' is no longer a valid type.
Unneeded #type specification:
array( '#type' => 'markup', '#markup' => 'Some arbitrary markup.', );
Correct (for both Drupal 7 and Drupal 8):
array( '#markup' => 'Some arbitrary markup.', );
In Drupal 7, drupal_render() set
#type to markup internally before rendering if
#markup was set but
#type was not set. In Drupal 8, we no longer specify a
#type at all for markup, since
'#type' => 'markup' no longer affects the behaviour of the
#markup render array key.