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There are modules like backup queue that allow for tasks to run in background. I have also used the task queue to implement a few tasks as part of a custom development workflow (e.g. git pull). With a number of team members and lots of sites & platforms I have an aegir setup that is keep busy constantly running tasks during the day often a few tasks waiting in the queue.
There are tasks (like backup/migrate/clone) that can be time consuming/intensive on the server that can block the task queue for other less intensive tasks (git pull - which might take a few seconds to run). Some tasks are also less of a priority (backup) which is fine if they keep getting pushed to when the task queue is quiet.
I am looking to build a feature that will allow for tasks to be weighted and run based on a priority. The idea is for this to be configurable for a system, so depending on your requirements you could set the install's to have a high priority and it would mean that install tasks would always get put into the top of the queue and run ahead of a backup or other lower priority tasks.
Code to make use of this can be found in a sandbox https://www.drupal.org/sandbox/darthsteven/2730949