If the machine-readable name of a feature is too long, the files exported in the tarball have truncated names, which causes the features module to not find the files when loading the feature.
For example, I created a feature based on a content type that had an auto-generated machine-readable name of 'project_business_requirements_questionnaire'. When I loaded the feature to another instance of Drupal, the content type was created, but none of the fields or field groups were in the content type. I discovered that the *.features.content.inc and *.features.fieldgroup.inc in the tarball had been truncated to 'project_business_requirements_questionnaire.features.con' and 'project_business_requirements_questionnaire.features.fie'. When the feature was loaded, the code did not find the files since they were not named according to the naming standard, and the fields and field groups did not load.
To correct this, the interface could limit the length of the machine-readable name, or the files need to be created with the full file name.