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The locale + config translation integration treats strings the same way locale itself does. If t('Drupal') appears in class A and module B, then the translations will be the same. If 'Frontpage' appears in config file X and config file Y and two separate occurrences within config file Z, then all of those would be translated the same in config/locale. If one of them is updated, the rest will be updated. Context may be provided on the configuration schema level like in t() to make strings unique. There is no automated configuration context.
Document that this is the case.
Figure out where to do it.
User interface changes