I've done a clean install of Drupal 8.2.7 on my Ubuntu 16.04 pc running apache 2.4.18 and mysql 5.7.17. Installation itself went well and my site came up once complete.

The front page worked correctly, but clicking on any link gave a 'Not found' error.

I then followed the instructions on this page to try to enable clean urls.:

By the end of that, all I managed to achieve was changing the 'Not found' error to blank pages when clicking any of the links on the front page.

I am getting this error in the apache error log. Not sure what I need to do to fix it though:

[Tue Mar 21 09:05:29.014812 2017] [:error] [pid 3240] [client] PHP Fatal error:  require_once(): Failed opening required './includes/bootstrap.inc' (include_path='.:/usr/share/php') in /storage/Media/www/index.php on line 15, referer:


Any help appreciated.


BWestOz’s picture

I'm pretty much a newbie myself but I've installed drupal 8 on ubuntu a few times.

A couple of things you could try,

Check you have the .htaccess file in your site's root directory.

Check this file:


Has an AllowOverride all directive

AllowOverride all

So far as enabling clean URLs is concerned it took me a while to get that working. I had to edit a directive in the settings.php file and put the address of my server into the array, as below.

$settings['trusted_host_patterns'] = array(

I don't know if this will help you but it's a couple of things you could try.

pssturges’s picture

Thanks for the reply.

Tried your suggestion for editing settings.php. Unfortunately, it doesn't seem to make any difference.

My /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf doesn't have AllowOverride all, but its in my /etc/apache2/apache2.conf and appears to be working.

Below are each of those files.
Thanks again.


# This is the main Apache server configuration file.  It contains the
# configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
# See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ for detailed information about
# the directives and /usr/share/doc/apache2/README.Debian about Debian specific
# hints.
# Summary of how the Apache 2 configuration works in Debian:
# The Apache 2 web server configuration in Debian is quite different to
# upstream's suggested way to configure the web server. This is because Debian's
# default Apache2 installation attempts to make adding and removing modules,
# virtual hosts, and extra configuration directives as flexible as possible, in
# order to make automating the changes and administering the server as easy as
# possible.

# It is split into several files forming the configuration hierarchy outlined
# below, all located in the /etc/apache2/ directory:
#	/etc/apache2/
#	|-- apache2.conf
#	|	`--  ports.conf
#	|-- mods-enabled
#	|	|-- *.load
#	|	`-- *.conf
#	|-- conf-enabled
#	|	`-- *.conf
# 	`-- sites-enabled
#	 	`-- *.conf
# * apache2.conf is the main configuration file (this file). It puts the pieces
#   together by including all remaining configuration files when starting up the
#   web server.
# * ports.conf is always included from the main configuration file. It is
#   supposed to determine listening ports for incoming connections which can be
#   customized anytime.
# * Configuration files in the mods-enabled/, conf-enabled/ and sites-enabled/
#   directories contain particular configuration snippets which manage modules,
#   global configuration fragments, or virtual host configurations,
#   respectively.
#   They are activated by symlinking available configuration files from their
#   respective *-available/ counterparts. These should be managed by using our
#   helpers a2enmod/a2dismod, a2ensite/a2dissite and a2enconf/a2disconf. See
#   their respective man pages for detailed information.
# * The binary is called apache2. Due to the use of environment variables, in
#   the default configuration, apache2 needs to be started/stopped with
#   /etc/init.d/apache2 or apache2ctl. Calling /usr/bin/apache2 directly will not
#   work with the default configuration.

# Global configuration

# ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
# configuration, error, and log files are kept.
# NOTE!  If you intend to place this on an NFS (or otherwise network)
# mounted filesystem then please read the Mutex documentation (available
# at <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/core.html#mutex>);
# you will save yourself a lot of trouble.
# Do NOT add a slash at the end of the directory path.
#ServerRoot "/etc/apache2"

# The accept serialization lock file MUST BE STORED ON A LOCAL DISK.
Mutex file:${APACHE_LOCK_DIR} default

# PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process
# identification number when it starts.
# This needs to be set in /etc/apache2/envvars

# Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out.
Timeout 300

# KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than
# one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.
KeepAlive On

# MaxKeepAliveRequests: The maximum number of requests to allow
# during a persistent connection. Set to 0 to allow an unlimited amount.
# We recommend you leave this number high, for maximum performance.
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100

# KeepAliveTimeout: Number of seconds to wait for the next request from the
# same client on the same connection.
KeepAliveTimeout 5

# These need to be set in /etc/apache2/envvars

# HostnameLookups: Log the names of clients or just their IP addresses
# e.g., www.apache.org (on) or (off).
# The default is off because it'd be overall better for the net if people
# had to knowingly turn this feature on, since enabling it means that
# each client request will result in AT LEAST one lookup request to the
# nameserver.
HostnameLookups Off

# ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
# If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a <VirtualHost>
# container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
# logged here.  If you *do* define an error logfile for a <VirtualHost>
# container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log

# LogLevel: Control the severity of messages logged to the error_log.
# Available values: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,
# error, crit, alert, emerg.
# It is also possible to configure the log level for particular modules, e.g.
# "LogLevel info ssl:warn"
LogLevel warn

# Include module configuration:
IncludeOptional mods-enabled/*.load
IncludeOptional mods-enabled/*.conf

# Include list of ports to listen on
Include ports.conf

# Sets the default security model of the Apache2 HTTPD server. It does
# not allow access to the root filesystem outside of /usr/share and /var/www.
# The former is used by web applications packaged in Debian,
# the latter may be used for local directories served by the web server. If
# your system is serving content from a sub-directory in /srv you must allow
# access here, or in any related virtual host.
<Directory />
	Options FollowSymLinks
	AllowOverride None
	Require all denied

<Directory /usr/share>
	AllowOverride None
	Require all granted

<Directory /var/www/>
	Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
	AllowOverride All
	Require all granted
AccessFileName .htaccess
#<Directory /srv/>
#	Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
#	AllowOverride None
#	Require all granted

# AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory
# for additional configuration directives.  See also the AllowOverride
# directive.
AccessFileName .htaccess

# The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being
# viewed by Web clients.
<FilesMatch "^\.ht">
	Require all denied

# The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
# a CustomLog directive.
# These deviate from the Common Log Format definitions in that they use %O
# (the actual bytes sent including headers) instead of %b (the size of the
# requested file), because the latter makes it impossible to detect partial
# requests.
# Note that the use of %{X-Forwarded-For}i instead of %h is not recommended.
# Use mod_remoteip instead.
LogFormat "%v:%p %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" vhost_combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O" common
LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent

# Include of directories ignores editors' and dpkg's backup files,
# see README.Debian for details.

# Include generic snippets of statements
IncludeOptional conf-enabled/*.conf

# Include the virtual host configurations:
IncludeOptional sites-enabled/*.conf

# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet



 * @file
 * Drupal site-specific configuration file.
 * This file may have been set to read-only by the Drupal installation program.
 * If you make changes to this file, be sure to protect it again after making
 * your modifications. Failure to remove write permissions to this file is a
 * security risk.
 * In order to use the selection rules below the multisite aliasing file named
 * sites/sites.php must be present. Its optional settings will be loaded, and
 * the aliases in the array $sites will override the default directory rules
 * below. See sites/example.sites.php for more information about aliases.
 * The configuration directory will be discovered by stripping the website's
 * hostname from left to right and pathname from right to left. The first
 * configuration file found will be used and any others will be ignored. If no
 * other configuration file is found then the default configuration file at
 * 'sites/default' will be used.
 * For example, for a fictitious site installed at
 * https://www.drupal.org:8080/mysite/test/, the 'settings.php' file is searched
 * for in the following directories:
 * - sites/8080.www.drupal.org.mysite.testa
 * - sites/www.drupal.org.mysite.test
 * - sites/drupal.org.mysite.test
 * - sites/org.mysite.test
 * - sites/8080.www.drupal.org.mysite
 * - sites/www.drupal.org.mysite
 * - sites/drupal.org.mysite
 * - sites/org.mysite
 * - sites/8080.www.drupal.org
 * - sites/www.drupal.org
 * - sites/drupal.org
 * - sites/org
 * - sites/default
 * Note that if you are installing on a non-standard port number, prefix the
 * hostname with that number. For example,
 * https://www.drupal.org:8080/mysite/test/ could be loaded from
 * sites/8080.www.drupal.org.mysite.test/.
 * @see example.sites.php
 * @see \Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel::getSitePath()
 * In addition to customizing application settings through variables in
 * settings.php, you can create a services.yml file in the same directory to
 * register custom, site-specific service definitions and/or swap out default
 * implementations with custom ones.

 * Database settings:
 * The $databases array specifies the database connection or
 * connections that Drupal may use.  Drupal is able to connect
 * to multiple databases, including multiple types of databases,
 * during the same request.
 * One example of the simplest connection array is shown below. To use the
 * sample settings, copy and uncomment the code below between the @code and
 * @endcode lines and paste it after the $databases declaration. You will need
 * to replace the database username and password and possibly the host and port
 * with the appropriate credentials for your database system.
 * The next section describes how to customize the $databases array for more
 * specific needs.
 * @code
 * $databases['default']['default'] = array (
 *   'database' => 'databasename',
 *   'username' => 'sqlusername',
 *   'password' => 'sqlpassword',
 *   'host' => 'localhost',
 *   'port' => '3306',
 *   'driver' => 'mysql',
 *   'prefix' => '',
 *   'collation' => 'utf8mb4_general_ci',
 * );
 * @endcode
 $databases = array();
#####################################added as suggested in drupal forum by BWestOz
#$settings['trusted_host_patterns'] = array(
 * Customizing database settings.
 * Many of the values of the $databases array can be customized for your
 * particular database system. Refer to the sample in the section above as a
 * starting point.
 * The "driver" property indicates what Drupal database driver the
 * connection should use.  This is usually the same as the name of the
 * database type, such as mysql or sqlite, but not always.  The other
 * properties will vary depending on the driver.  For SQLite, you must
 * specify a database file name in a directory that is writable by the
 * webserver.  For most other drivers, you must specify a
 * username, password, host, and database name.
 * Transaction support is enabled by default for all drivers that support it,
 * including MySQL. To explicitly disable it, set the 'transactions' key to
 * Note that some configurations of MySQL, such as the MyISAM engine, don't
 * support it and will proceed silently even if enabled. If you experience
 * transaction related crashes with such configuration, set the 'transactions'
 * key to FALSE.
 * For each database, you may optionally specify multiple "target" databases.
 * A target database allows Drupal to try to send certain queries to a
 * different database if it can but fall back to the default connection if not.
 * That is useful for primary/replica replication, as Drupal may try to connect
 * to a replica server when appropriate and if one is not available will simply
 * fall back to the single primary server (The terms primary/replica are
 * traditionally referred to as master/slave in database server documentation).
 * The general format for the $databases array is as follows:
 * @code
 * $databases['default']['default'] = $info_array;
 * $databases['default']['replica'][] = $info_array;
 * $databases['default']['replica'][] = $info_array;
 * $databases['extra']['default'] = $info_array;
 * @endcode
 * In the above example, $info_array is an array of settings described above.
 * The first line sets a "default" database that has one primary database
 * (the second level default).  The second and third lines create an array
 * of potential replica databases.  Drupal will select one at random for a given
 * request as needed.  The fourth line creates a new database with a name of
 * "extra".
 * You can optionally set prefixes for some or all database table names
 * by using the 'prefix' setting. If a prefix is specified, the table
 * name will be prepended with its value. Be sure to use valid database
 * characters only, usually alphanumeric and underscore. If no prefixes
 * are desired, leave it as an empty string ''.
 * To have all database names prefixed, set 'prefix' as a string:
 * @code
 *   'prefix' => 'main_',
 * @endcode
 * To provide prefixes for specific tables, set 'prefix' as an array.
 * The array's keys are the table names and the values are the prefixes.
 * The 'default' element is mandatory and holds the prefix for any tables
 * not specified elsewhere in the array. Example:
 * @code
 *   'prefix' => array(
 *     'default'   => 'main_',
 *     'users'     => 'shared_',
 *     'sessions'  => 'shared_',
 *     'role'      => 'shared_',
 *     'authmap'   => 'shared_',
 *   ),
 * @endcode
 * You can also use a reference to a schema/database as a prefix. This may be
 * useful if your Drupal installation exists in a schema that is not the default
 * or you want to access several databases from the same code base at the same
 * time.
 * Example:
 * @code
 *   'prefix' => array(
 *     'default'   => 'main.',
 *     'users'     => 'shared.',
 *     'sessions'  => 'shared.',
 *     'role'      => 'shared.',
 *     'authmap'   => 'shared.',
 *   );
 * @endcode
 * NOTE: MySQL and SQLite's definition of a schema is a database.
 * Advanced users can add or override initial commands to execute when
 * connecting to the database server, as well as PDO connection settings. For
 * example, to enable MySQL SELECT queries to exceed the max_join_size system
 * variable, and to reduce the database connection timeout to 5 seconds:
 * @code
 * $databases['default']['default'] = array(
 *   'init_commands' => array(
 *     'big_selects' => 'SET SQL_BIG_SELECTS=1',
 *   ),
 *   'pdo' => array(
 *     PDO::ATTR_TIMEOUT => 5,
 *   ),
 * );
 * @endcode
 * WARNING: The above defaults are designed for database portability. Changing
 * them may cause unexpected behavior, including potential data loss. See
 * https://www.drupal.org/developing/api/database/configuration for more
 * information on these defaults and the potential issues.
 * More details can be found in the constructor methods for each driver:
 * - \Drupal\Core\Database\Driver\mysql\Connection::__construct()
 * - \Drupal\Core\Database\Driver\pgsql\Connection::__construct()
 * - \Drupal\Core\Database\Driver\sqlite\Connection::__construct()
 * Sample Database configuration format for PostgreSQL (pgsql):
 * @code
 *   $databases['default']['default'] = array(
 *     'driver' => 'pgsql',
 *     'database' => 'databasename',
 *     'username' => 'sqlusername',
 *     'password' => 'sqlpassword',
 *     'host' => 'localhost',
 *     'prefix' => '',
 *   );
 * @endcode
 * Sample Database configuration format for SQLite (sqlite):
 * @code
 *   $databases['default']['default'] = array(
 *     'driver' => 'sqlite',
 *     'database' => '/path/to/databasefilename',
 *   );
 * @endcode

 * Location of the site configuration files.
 * The $config_directories array specifies the location of file system
 * directories used for configuration data. On install, the "sync" directory is
 * created. This is used for configuration imports. The "active" directory is
 * not created by default since the default storage for active configuration is
 * the database rather than the file system. (This can be changed. See "Active
 * configuration settings" below).
 * The default location for the "sync" directory is inside a randomly-named
 * directory in the public files path. The setting below allows you to override
 * the "sync" location.
 * If you use files for the "active" configuration, you can tell the
 * Configuration system where this directory is located by adding an entry with
 * Example:
 * @code
 *   $config_directories = array(
 *     CONFIG_SYNC_DIRECTORY => '/directory/outside/webroot',
 *   );
 * @endcode
$config_directories = array();

 * Settings:
 * $settings contains environment-specific configuration, such as the files
 * directory and reverse proxy address, and temporary configuration, such as
 * security overrides.
 * @see \Drupal\Core\Site\Settings::get()

 * The active installation profile.
 * Changing this after installation is not recommended as it changes which
 * directories are scanned during extension discovery. If this is set prior to
 * installation this value will be rewritten according to the profile selected
 * by the user.
 * @see install_select_profile()
# $settings['install_profile'] = '';

 * Salt for one-time login links, cancel links, form tokens, etc.
 * This variable will be set to a random value by the installer. All one-time
 * login links will be invalidated if the value is changed. Note that if your
 * site is deployed on a cluster of web servers, you must ensure that this
 * variable has the same value on each server.
 * For enhanced security, you may set this variable to the contents of a file
 * outside your document root; you should also ensure that this file is not
 * stored with backups of your database.
 * Example:
 * @code
 *   $settings['hash_salt'] = file_get_contents('/home/example/salt.txt');
 * @endcode
$settings['hash_salt'] = 'Sxgzd1WiJJcgb7ani60vOU1KJzhOSjb4R7q-CnhpAwzluaej6_hKe0xonXHGv3sMkeluzb1jfw';

 * Deployment identifier.
 * Drupal's dependency injection container will be automatically invalidated and
 * rebuilt when the Drupal core version changes. When updating contributed or
 * custom code that changes the container, changing this identifier will also
 * allow the container to be invalidated as soon as code is deployed.
# $settings['deployment_identifier'] = \Drupal::VERSION;

 * Access control for update.php script.
 * If you are updating your Drupal installation using the update.php script but
 * are not logged in using either an account with the "Administer software
 * updates" permission or the site maintenance account (the account that was
 * created during installation), you will need to modify the access check
 * statement below. Change the FALSE to a TRUE to disable the access check.
 * After finishing the upgrade, be sure to open this file again and change the
 * TRUE back to a FALSE!
$settings['update_free_access'] = FALSE;

 * External access proxy settings:
 * If your site must access the Internet via a web proxy then you can enter the
 * proxy settings here. Set the full URL of the proxy, including the port, in
 * variables:
 * - $settings['http_client_config']['proxy']['http']: The proxy URL for HTTP
 *   requests.
 * - $settings['http_client_config']['proxy']['https']: The proxy URL for HTTPS
 *   requests.
 * You can pass in the user name and password for basic authentication in the
 * URLs in these settings.
 * You can also define an array of host names that can be accessed directly,
 * bypassing the proxy, in $settings['http_client_config']['proxy']['no'].
# $settings['http_client_config']['proxy']['http'] = 'http://proxy_user:proxy_pass@example.com:8080';
# $settings['http_client_config']['proxy']['https'] = 'http://proxy_user:proxy_pass@example.com:8080';
# $settings['http_client_config']['proxy']['no'] = ['', 'localhost'];

 * Reverse Proxy Configuration:
 * Reverse proxy servers are often used to enhance the performance
 * of heavily visited sites and may also provide other site caching,
 * security, or encryption benefits. In an environment where Drupal
 * is behind a reverse proxy, the real IP address of the client should
 * be determined such that the correct client IP address is available
 * to Drupal's logging, statistics, and access management systems. In
 * the most simple scenario, the proxy server will add an
 * X-Forwarded-For header to the request that contains the client IP
 * address. However, HTTP headers are vulnerable to spoofing, where a
 * malicious client could bypass restrictions by setting the
 * X-Forwarded-For header directly. Therefore, Drupal's proxy
 * configuration requires the IP addresses of all remote proxies to be
 * specified in $settings['reverse_proxy_addresses'] to work correctly.
 * Enable this setting to get Drupal to determine the client IP from
 * the X-Forwarded-For header (or $settings['reverse_proxy_header'] if set).
 * If you are unsure about this setting, do not have a reverse proxy,
 * or Drupal operates in a shared hosting environment, this setting
 * should remain commented out.
 * In order for this setting to be used you must specify every possible
 * reverse proxy IP address in $settings['reverse_proxy_addresses'].
 * If a complete list of reverse proxies is not available in your
 * environment (for example, if you use a CDN) you may set the
 * $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'] variable directly in settings.php.
 * Be aware, however, that it is likely that this would allow IP
 * address spoofing unless more advanced precautions are taken.
# $settings['reverse_proxy'] = TRUE;

 * Specify every reverse proxy IP address in your environment.
 * This setting is required if $settings['reverse_proxy'] is TRUE.
# $settings['reverse_proxy_addresses'] = array('a.b.c.d', ...);

 * Set this value if your proxy server sends the client IP in a header
 * other than X-Forwarded-For.
# $settings['reverse_proxy_header'] = 'X_CLUSTER_CLIENT_IP';

 * Set this value if your proxy server sends the client protocol in a header
 * other than X-Forwarded-Proto.
# $settings['reverse_proxy_proto_header'] = 'X_FORWARDED_PROTO';

 * Set this value if your proxy server sends the client protocol in a header
 * other than X-Forwarded-Host.
# $settings['reverse_proxy_host_header'] = 'X_FORWARDED_HOST';

 * Set this value if your proxy server sends the client protocol in a header
 * other than X-Forwarded-Port.
# $settings['reverse_proxy_port_header'] = 'X_FORWARDED_PORT';

 * Set this value if your proxy server sends the client protocol in a header
 * other than Forwarded.
# $settings['reverse_proxy_forwarded_header'] = 'FORWARDED';

 * Page caching:
 * By default, Drupal sends a "Vary: Cookie" HTTP header for anonymous page
 * views. This tells a HTTP proxy that it may return a page from its local
 * cache without contacting the web server, if the user sends the same Cookie
 * header as the user who originally requested the cached page. Without "Vary:
 * Cookie", authenticated users would also be served the anonymous page from
 * the cache. If the site has mostly anonymous users except a few known
 * editors/administrators, the Vary header can be omitted. This allows for
 * better caching in HTTP proxies (including reverse proxies), i.e. even if
 * clients send different cookies, they still get content served from the cache.
 * However, authenticated users should access the site directly (i.e. not use an
 * HTTP proxy, and bypass the reverse proxy if one is used) in order to avoid
 * getting cached pages from the proxy.
# $settings['omit_vary_cookie'] = TRUE;

 * Cache TTL for client error (4xx) responses.
 * Items cached per-URL tend to result in a large number of cache items, and
 * this can be problematic on 404 pages which by their nature are unbounded. A
 * fixed TTL can be set for these items, defaulting to one hour, so that cache
 * backends which do not support LRU can purge older entries. To disable caching
 * of client error responses set the value to 0. Currently applies only to
 * page_cache module.
# $settings['cache_ttl_4xx'] = 3600;

 * Class Loader.
 * If the APC extension is detected, the Symfony APC class loader is used for
 * performance reasons. Detection can be prevented by setting
 * class_loader_auto_detect to false, as in the example below.
# $settings['class_loader_auto_detect'] = FALSE;

 * If the APC extension is not detected, either because APC is missing or
 * because auto-detection has been disabled, auto-loading falls back to
 * Composer's ClassLoader, which is good for development as it does not break
 * when code is moved in the file system. You can also decorate the base class
 * loader with another cached solution than the Symfony APC class loader, as
 * all production sites should have a cached class loader of some sort enabled.
 * To do so, you may decorate and replace the local $class_loader variable. For
 * example, to use Symfony's APC class loader without automatic detection,
 * uncomment the code below.
if ($settings['hash_salt']) {
  $prefix = 'drupal.' . hash('sha256', 'drupal.' . $settings['hash_salt']);
  $apc_loader = new \Symfony\Component\ClassLoader\ApcClassLoader($prefix, $class_loader);
  $class_loader = $apc_loader;

 * Authorized file system operations:
 * The Update Manager module included with Drupal provides a mechanism for
 * site administrators to securely install missing updates for the site
 * directly through the web user interface. On securely-configured servers,
 * the Update manager will require the administrator to provide SSH or FTP
 * credentials before allowing the installation to proceed; this allows the
 * site to update the new files as the user who owns all the Drupal files,
 * instead of as the user the webserver is running as. On servers where the
 * webserver user is itself the owner of the Drupal files, the administrator
 * will not be prompted for SSH or FTP credentials (note that these server
 * setups are common on shared hosting, but are inherently insecure).
 * Some sites might wish to disable the above functionality, and only update
 * the code directly via SSH or FTP themselves. This setting completely
 * disables all functionality related to these authorized file operations.
 * @see https://www.drupal.org/node/244924
 * Remove the leading hash signs to disable.
# $settings['allow_authorize_operations'] = FALSE;

 * Default mode for directories and files written by Drupal.
 * Value should be in PHP Octal Notation, with leading zero.
# $settings['file_chmod_directory'] = 0775;
# $settings['file_chmod_file'] = 0664;

 * Public file base URL:
 * An alternative base URL to be used for serving public files. This must
 * include any leading directory path.
 * A different value from the domain used by Drupal to be used for accessing
 * public files. This can be used for a simple CDN integration, or to improve
 * security by serving user-uploaded files from a different domain or subdomain
 * pointing to the same server. Do not include a trailing slash.
# $settings['file_public_base_url'] = 'http://downloads.example.com/files';

 * Public file path:
 * A local file system path where public files will be stored. This directory
 * must exist and be writable by Drupal. This directory must be relative to
 * the Drupal installation directory and be accessible over the web.
# $settings['file_public_path'] = 'sites/default/files';

 * Private file path:
 * A local file system path where private files will be stored. This directory
 * must be absolute, outside of the Drupal installation directory and not
 * accessible over the web.
 * Note: Caches need to be cleared when this value is changed to make the
 * private:// stream wrapper available to the system.
 * See https://www.drupal.org/documentation/modules/file for more information
 * about securing private files.
# $settings['file_private_path'] = '';

 * Session write interval:
 * Set the minimum interval between each session write to database.
 * For performance reasons it defaults to 180.
# $settings['session_write_interval'] = 180;

 * String overrides:
 * To override specific strings on your site with or without enabling the Locale
 * module, add an entry to this list. This functionality allows you to change
 * a small number of your site's default English language interface strings.
 * Remove the leading hash signs to enable.
 * The "en" part of the variable name, is dynamic and can be any langcode of
 * any added language. (eg locale_custom_strings_de for german).
# $settings['locale_custom_strings_en'][''] = array(
#   'forum'      => 'Discussion board',
#   '@count min' => '@count minutes',
# );

 * A custom theme for the offline page:
 * This applies when the site is explicitly set to maintenance mode through the
 * administration page or when the database is inactive due to an error.
 * The template file should also be copied into the theme. It is located inside
 * 'core/modules/system/templates/maintenance-page.html.twig'.
 * Note: This setting does not apply to installation and update pages.
# $settings['maintenance_theme'] = 'bartik';

 * PHP settings:
 * To see what PHP settings are possible, including whether they can be set at
 * runtime (by using ini_set()), read the PHP documentation:
 * http://php.net/manual/ini.list.php
 * See \Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel::bootEnvironment() for required runtime
 * settings and the .htaccess file for non-runtime settings.
 * Settings defined there should not be duplicated here so as to avoid conflict
 * issues.

 * If you encounter a situation where users post a large amount of text, and
 * the result is stripped out upon viewing but can still be edited, Drupal's
 * output filter may not have sufficient memory to process it.  If you
 * experience this issue, you may wish to uncomment the following two lines
 * and increase the limits of these variables.  For more information, see
 * http://php.net/manual/pcre.configuration.php.
# ini_set('pcre.backtrack_limit', 200000);
# ini_set('pcre.recursion_limit', 200000);

 * Active configuration settings.
 * By default, the active configuration is stored in the database in the
 * {config} table. To use a different storage mechanism for the active
 * configuration, do the following prior to installing:
 * - Create an "active" directory and declare its path in $config_directories
 *   as explained under the 'Location of the site configuration files' section
 *   above in this file. To enhance security, you can declare a path that is
 *   outside your document root.
 * - Override the 'bootstrap_config_storage' setting here. It must be set to a
 *   callable that returns an object that implements
 *   \Drupal\Core\Config\StorageInterface.
 * - Override the service definition 'config.storage.active'. Put this
 *   override in a services.yml file in the same directory as settings.php
 *   (definitions in this file will override service definition defaults).
# $settings['bootstrap_config_storage'] = array('Drupal\Core\Config\BootstrapConfigStorageFactory', 'getFileStorage');

 * Configuration overrides.
 * To globally override specific configuration values for this site,
 * set them here. You usually don't need to use this feature. This is
 * useful in a configuration file for a vhost or directory, rather than
 * the default settings.php.
 * Note that any values you provide in these variable overrides will not be
 * viewable from the Drupal administration interface. The administration
 * interface displays the values stored in configuration so that you can stage
 * changes to other environments that don't have the overrides.
 * There are particular configuration values that are risky to override. For
 * example, overriding the list of installed modules in 'core.extension' is not
 * supported as module install or uninstall has not occurred. Other examples
 * include field storage configuration, because it has effects on database
 * structure, and 'core.menu.static_menu_link_overrides' since this is cached in
 * a way that is not config override aware. Also, note that changing
 * configuration values in settings.php will not fire any of the configuration
 * change events.
# $config['system.site']['name'] = 'My Drupal site';
# $config['system.theme']['default'] = 'stark';
# $config['user.settings']['anonymous'] = 'Visitor';

 * Fast 404 pages:
 * Drupal can generate fully themed 404 pages. However, some of these responses
 * are for images or other resource files that are not displayed to the user.
 * This can waste bandwidth, and also generate server load.
 * The options below return a simple, fast 404 page for URLs matching a
 * specific pattern:
 * - $config['system.performance']['fast_404']['exclude_paths']: A regular
 *   expression to match paths to exclude, such as images generated by image
 *   styles, or dynamically-resized images. The default pattern provided below
 *   also excludes the private file system. If you need to add more paths, you
 *   can add '|path' to the expression.
 * - $config['system.performance']['fast_404']['paths']: A regular expression to
 *   match paths that should return a simple 404 page, rather than the fully
 *   themed 404 page. If you don't have any aliases ending in htm or html you
 *   can add '|s?html?' to the expression.
 * - $config['system.performance']['fast_404']['html']: The html to return for
 *   simple 404 pages.
 * Remove the leading hash signs if you would like to alter this functionality.
# $config['system.performance']['fast_404']['exclude_paths'] = '/\/(?:styles)|(?:system\/files)\//';
# $config['system.performance']['fast_404']['paths'] = '/\.(?:txt|png|gif|jpe?g|css|js|ico|swf|flv|cgi|bat|pl|dll|exe|asp)$/i';
# $config['system.performance']['fast_404']['html'] = '<!DOCTYPE html><html><head><title>404 Not Found</title></head><body><h1>Not Found</h1><p>The requested URL "@path" was not found on this server.</p></body></html>';

 * Load services definition file.
$settings['container_yamls'][] = $app_root . '/' . $site_path . '/services.yml';

 * Override the default service container class.
 * This is useful for example to trace the service container for performance
 * tracking purposes, for testing a service container with an error condition or
 * to test a service container that throws an exception.
# $settings['container_base_class'] = '\Drupal\Core\DependencyInjection\Container';

 * Override the default yaml parser class.
 * Provide a fully qualified class name here if you would like to provide an
 * alternate implementation YAML parser. The class must implement the
 * \Drupal\Component\Serialization\SerializationInterface interface.
# $settings['yaml_parser_class'] = NULL;

 * Trusted host configuration.
 * Drupal core can use the Symfony trusted host mechanism to prevent HTTP Host
 * header spoofing.
 * To enable the trusted host mechanism, you enable your allowable hosts
 * in $settings['trusted_host_patterns']. This should be an array of regular
 * expression patterns, without delimiters, representing the hosts you would
 * like to allow.
 * For example:
 * @code
 * $settings['trusted_host_patterns'] = array(
 *   '^www\.example\.com$',
 * );
 * @endcode
 * will allow the site to only run from www.example.com.
 * If you are running multisite, or if you are running your site from
 * different domain names (eg, you don't redirect http://www.example.com to
 * http://example.com), you should specify all of the host patterns that are
 * allowed by your site.
 * For example:
 * @code
 * $settings['trusted_host_patterns'] = array(
 *   '^example\.com$',
 *   '^.+\.example\.com$',
 *   '^example\.org$',
 *   '^.+\.example\.org$',
 * );
 * @endcode
 * will allow the site to run off of all variants of example.com and
 * example.org, with all subdomains included.

 * The default list of directories that will be ignored by Drupal's file API.
 * By default ignore node_modules and bower_components folders to avoid issues
 * with common frontend tools and recursive scanning of directories looking for
 * extensions.
 * @see file_scan_directory()
 * @see \Drupal\Core\Extension\ExtensionDiscovery::scanDirectory()
$settings['file_scan_ignore_directories'] = [

 * Load local development override configuration, if available.
 * Use settings.local.php to override variables on secondary (staging,
 * development, etc) installations of this site. Typically used to disable
 * caching, JavaScript/CSS compression, re-routing of outgoing emails, and
 * other things that should not happen on development and testing sites.
 * Keep this code block at the end of this file to take full effect.
# if (file_exists($app_root . '/' . $site_path . '/settings.local.php')) {
#   include $app_root . '/' . $site_path . '/settings.local.php';
# }
$databases['default']['default'] = array (
  'database' => 'drupal',
  'username' => 'XXXXX',
  'password' => 'XXXXXXX',
  'prefix' => '',
  'host' => 'localhost',
  'port' => '3306',
  'namespace' => 'Drupal\\Core\\Database\\Driver\\mysql',
  'driver' => 'mysql',
$settings['install_profile'] = 'standard';
$config_directories['sync'] = 'sites/default/files/config_JruVxHM8gL1e7LDEDwFMvzVNlJw0NhjQKDtrR8P37HQJGfooiuql8IK1ayQNmLi54JKI3hmDug/sync';
#$conf['clean_url'] = 0;
BWestOz’s picture

I doubt that the clean-urls issue/settings.php directive is the cause of your pages not found problem.

I'm not experienced enough to feel I can be confident to help you much.

I just did a clean instal of D8.2.7 on Ubuntu Server 16.04.2.

This is the Drupal Directory listing.

root@myClub:/var/www/html/drupal# ls -la
total 268
drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4096 Mar 16 04:28 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 www-data root 4096 Mar 20 20:56 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 262 Mar 16 04:19 autoload.php
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1437 Mar 16 04:19 composer.json
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 148901 Mar 16 04:19 composer.lock
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 4096 Mar 16 04:19 core
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 948 Mar 16 04:19 .csslintrc
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 350 Mar 16 04:19 .editorconfig
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 185 Mar 16 04:19 .eslintignore
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 36 Mar 16 04:19 .eslintrc
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1346 Mar 16 04:19 example.gitignore
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3671 Mar 16 04:19 .gitattributes
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7865 Mar 16 04:19 .htaccess
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 549 Mar 16 04:19 index.php
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18092 Nov 17 07:57 LICENSE.txt
drwxr-xr-x 3 www-data root 4096 Mar 20 21:40 modules
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Mar 16 04:19 profiles
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5889 Mar 16 04:19 README.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1596 Mar 16 04:19 robots.txt
drwxr-xr-x 3 www-data root 4096 Mar 16 04:19 sites
drwxr-xr-x 3 www-data root 4096 Mar 20 21:33 themes
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 848 Mar 16 04:19 update.php
drwxr-xr-x 18 root root 4096 Mar 16 04:28 vendor
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4555 Mar 16 04:19 web.config

This is the database table listing.

mysql> show tables;
| Tables_in_drupal_db |
| batch |
| block_content |
| block_content__body |
| block_content_field_data |
| block_content_field_revision |
| block_content_revision |
| block_content_revision__body |
| cache_bootstrap |
| cache_config |
| cache_container |
| cache_data |
| cache_default |
| cache_discovery |
| cache_dynamic_page_cache |
| cache_entity |
| cache_menu |
| cache_render |
| cachetags |
| comment |
| comment__comment_body |
| comment_entity_statistics |
| comment_field_data |
| config |
| file_managed |
| file_usage |
| history |
| key_value |
| key_value_expire |
| menu_link_content |
| menu_link_content_data |
| menu_tree |
| node |
| node__body |
| node__comment |
| node__field_image |
| node__field_tags |
| node_access |
| node_field_data |
| node_field_revision |
| node_revision |
| node_revision__body |
| node_revision__comment |
| node_revision__field_image |
| node_revision__field_tags |
| queue |
| router |
| search_dataset |
| search_index |
| search_total |
| semaphore |
| sequences |
| sessions |
| shortcut |
| shortcut_field_data |
| shortcut_set_users |
| taxonomy_index |
| taxonomy_term_data |
| taxonomy_term_field_data |
| taxonomy_term_hierarchy |
| url_alias |
| user__roles |
| user__user_picture |
| users |
| users_data |
| users_field_data |
| watchdog |
66 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Maybe it's a permissions issue.

Sorry I can't be more help.

pssturges’s picture

Still looking to sort this out if anyone has any thoughts.


BWestOz’s picture

Do you have a ../drupal/core/includes/bootstrap.inc file?

pssturges’s picture

I do. But I don't think that is where apache is looking for it.

My site set up as follows.
Apache is set up with the root at /storage/Media/www. I have a few other minor pages running from that directory. I have then installed drupal in /storage/Media/www/html. So bootstrap.inc is in /storage/Media/www/html/core/includes. Drupal/apache seem to be looking for it in /storage/Media/www/core/includes.

TBH i don't really know why its using /storage/Media/www/index.php as shown in the error log. That is outside the drupal installation. Would have thought drupal was self contained.

BWestOz’s picture

You could try pointing apache2 to the drupal directory as the document root in the apache config file.

I'm using Ubuntu server 16.04.2 and the apache config file is:


The line (for me) is:

DocumentRoot /var/www/html/drupal

You could try setting this to your drupal directory and see if this makes any difference.

mmjvb’s picture

you are missing RewriteBase /html

pssturges’s picture

I had it in my .htaccess but it was "/" not "/html". All seems to be working now.

Thanks for you help!

VM’s picture

ensure apache mod_rewrite is enabled in the environment.

pssturges’s picture

apache2ctl -M
AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
Loaded Modules:
core_module (static)
so_module (static)
watchdog_module (static)
http_module (static)
log_config_module (static)
logio_module (static)
version_module (static)
unixd_module (static)
access_compat_module (shared)
alias_module (shared)
auth_basic_module (shared)
auth_digest_module (shared)
authn_core_module (shared)
authn_file_module (shared)
authz_core_module (shared)
authz_host_module (shared)
authz_user_module (shared)
autoindex_module (shared)
cgi_module (shared)
cgid_module (shared)
deflate_module (shared)
dir_module (shared)
env_module (shared)
filter_module (shared)
include_module (shared)
mime_module (shared)
mpm_prefork_module (shared)
negotiation_module (shared)
php7_module (shared)
rewrite_module (shared)
setenvif_module (shared)
status_module (shared)

pssturges’s picture

Thanks everyone for your help!

tintucnhadat247’s picture

tôi cũng gặp phải vấn đề tương tự như trên