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In fivestar_field_widget_info (in fivestar.field.inc) a 'select' widget type is declared. When creating new content on our site, all taxonomy terms in the content creation form were replaced with this widget , so we couldn't select taxonomy terms (but instead could only select from a popup menu of 1 star / 2 star / etc.).
I changed the widget label to 'fivestar_select' on lines 174 in fivestar_field_widget_info() and 232 in fivestar_field_widget_form() and the proper selection of taxonomy terms in content creation pages returned.