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Since I've a somewhat bigger field export, it happens that the field-rebuild runs into a timeout on installation.
The default of Drupal is 240. The attached patch changes the function
field_features_export_render and adds a line with
drupal_set_time_limit(3600); to the export output.
That should work for now, but if other rebuild functions, besides fields, also run into timeouts we should think about to increase the time limit somewhere more central in features.