Working with breakpoints in Drupal 8
There is no user interface for editing breakpoints in Drupal 8. Due to the fact that breakpoints are defined in configuration files, it's not possible to provide a UI in contrib either.
Breakpoints are used to separate the height or width of viewports (screens, printers, and other media output types) into steps and provide for the case where a responsive design adjusts in order to display correctly on different devices. The Breakpoints module standardizes the use of breakpoints, and enables modules and themes to expose or use each others' breakpoints. The Breakpoint module keeps track of the height, width, and resolution breakpoints.
A breakpoint consists of a label and a media query. Media queries are a formal way to encode breakpoints. For instance, a width breakpoint at 40em is written as the media query '(min-width: 40em)'. Breakpoints are really just media queries with some additional metadata, such as name and multiplier information.
Themes and modules can define breakpoints by creating a config file called
myThemeOrModule is the name of your theme or module.
Each entry in this file defines one breakpoint, consisting of a machine name, by which the breakpoint entry is uniquely identified e.g.
bartik.mobile, and its children defining the breakpoint's properties:
label- A human readable label for the breakpoint.
mediaQuery- Media query text proper, e.g. 'all and (min-width: 851px)'.
weight- Positional weight (order) for the breakpoint.
multipliers- Supported pixel resolution multipliers.
Note: The order in which breakpoints are arranged through their weight value is extremely important. Breakpoints with the smallest min-width should have the lowest weight, while breakpoints with the largest min-width should have a larger weight value. By default, modules will order breakpoints from smallest to largest. However modules can reverse that order if necessary: for example the Responsive Image module takes care of re-ordering breakpoints from largest to smallest based on the weight value.
bartik.mobile: label: mobile mediaQuery: '' weight: 0 multipliers: - 1x bartik.narrow: label: narrow mediaQuery: 'all and (min-width: 560px) and (max-width: 850px)' weight: 1 multipliers: - 1x bartik.wide: label: wide mediaQuery: 'all and (min-width: 851px)' weight: 2 multipliers: - 1x
Breakpoints can be organized into groups. Modules and themes should use groups to separate out breakpoints that are meant to be used for different purposes, such as breakpoints for layouts or breakpoints for image sizing.
A breakpoint group is a combination of breakpoints. Each theme or module can define zero or more breakpoint groups. A breakpoint is created through the usage of special breakpoint IDs and keys. Specifying a group is optional, if you don't specify a group, the group will be named the same as your theme or module.
For example, within yourtheme.breakpoints.yml, you could create the following two breakpoint groups:
yourtheme.group1.mobile: label: narrow mediaQuery: '' weight: 0 multipliers: - 1x group: yourtheme.group1 yourtheme.group1.narrow: label: narrow mediaQuery: '(min-width: 560px)' weight: 0 multipliers: - 1x - 2x group: yourtheme.group1 yourtheme.group1.wide: label: wide mediaQuery: '(min-width: 851px)' weight: 1 multipliers: - 1x - 2x group: yourtheme.group1 yourtheme.group2.mobile: label: narrow mediaQuery: '' weight: 0 multipliers: - 1x group: yourtheme.group2 yourtheme.group2.narrower: label: narrow mediaQuery: '(min-width: 400px)' weight: 0 multipliers: - 1x - 2x group: yourtheme.group2 yourtheme.group2.wider: label: wide mediaQuery: '(min-width: 1001px)' weight: 1 multipliers: - 1x - 2x group: yourtheme.group2
Starting the ID for a breakpoint with the machine name of the theme or module, a dot and then a machine name for the group, and then using that same theme/module.group identifier in the group key is what creates a breakpoint group. All breakpoints with those same sets of keys will appear in the same breakpoint group.
At this time it is not possible to create a custom label for a breakpoint group beyond the machine name that appears in the group key. That is what will appear as the label when selecting a breakpoint group in the Responsive Image module UI, for example.
You can also add breakpoints to breakpoint groups defined by other modules or themes, but you must use the full name.
For example, in yourmodule.breakpoints.yml you could do the following:
yourmodule.yourtheme.group2.superwide label: superwide mediaQuery: '(min-width: 1501px)' weight: 1 multipliers: - 1x - 2x group: yourtheme.group2
This would add the breakpoint defined in your module to the breakpoint group defined in yourtheme.
Multipliers are a measure of the viewport's device resolution, defined as the ratio between the physical pixel size of the active device and the device-independent pixel size. For example "retina" displays have a multiplier of 2x.
The breakpoint module defines multipliers of 1x, 1.5x and 2x. When defining breakpoints, modules and themes can define which multipliers apply to each breakpoint.
'1.5x' // supports Android '2x' // supports Mac retina display
Load new breakpoint files
If you add a new breakpoints config file during theme testing, you can rebuild caches to view the new breakpoints.